Discovering the Rich Historical Places in Bihar

Bihar, one of the oldest inhabited regions in the world, is known for its rich history and cultural heritage. Located in the eastern part of India, Bihar has a plethora of historical places that are a testimony to its glorious past. From ancient temples to imposing forts, Bihar has something to offer for every history buff. In this blog post, we’ll explore some of the most prominent historical places in Bihar.

Historical places in Bihar

Bihar is a treasure trove of historic sites that testify to its rich cultural heritage and diverse history. Visitors to the region will find a plethora of landmarks and monuments to explore, ranging from ancient temples to imperial forts.

One of the most notable historical sites in Bihar is the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of the holiest places for Buddhists. This temple is built on the spot where Buddha attained enlightenment and is a must-visit for anyone seeking spiritual enrichment.

Another iconic landmark in Bihar is the Nalanda University ruins, another UNESCO World Heritage Site that dates back to the 5th century BCE. This university was a center for Buddhist learning and attracted scholars from all over the world, making it a crucial cultural hub during ancient times.

The ancient city of Vaishali is another historic site of significant importance in Bihar. This city is steeped in legend and is known as the birthplace of Lord Mahavira, the founder of the Jain religion. Visitors can explore the remains of the once-great city, which include archaeological ruins, ancient monuments, and temples.

Bihar is also home to several impressive forts, such as the Rohtas Fort and the Sher Shah Suri Fort. These majestic structures served as imperial strongholds during ancient times and are fascinating to explore for their architectural brilliance and rich cultural history.

Bihar is a land of great historical significance that boasts a rich and diverse cultural heritage. Visitors to the region can immerse themselves in the history of the area by exploring the many landmarks and monuments that dot the landscape, offering a glimpse into the past and a deeper understanding of the region’s cultural significance.

Mahabodhi Temple

The Mahabodhi Temple, located in Bodh Gaya, Bihar, is one of the most important Buddhist pilgrimage sites in the world. It is the place where Gautama Buddha attained enlightenment under the Bodhi tree, which still stands in the temple complex today.

The temple, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was built in the 3rd century BC by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka. It underwent several renovations over the centuries, with the current structure dating back to the 5th or 6th century AD. The temple is made of brick and stands at a height of 55 meters.

The temple complex is spread over 4.8 hectares and contains several other important Buddhist structures such as the Vajrasana, the Animeshlocha Stupa, and the Ratnachakrama (Jewel Walk). The Vajrasana, or Diamond Throne, is the spot where the Buddha is said to have meditated after attaining enlightenment. The Animeshlocha Stupa is where the Buddha is said to have spent the first week after attaining enlightenment, staring without blinking at the Bodhi tree in gratitude. The Ratnachakrama is a circular walkway around the temple that is said to represent the Buddha’s path to enlightenment.

The temple itself is a magnificent structure, with a tall spire and several smaller spires surrounding it. The entrance to the temple is through a large gate known as the Mahabodhi Gate, which is flanked by two large statues of the Buddha. The inner sanctum of the temple contains a large golden statue of the Buddha in the meditation posture, surrounded by smaller statues of other Buddhist deities.

The Mahabodhi Temple is not just a place of worship for Buddhists but also a cultural and historical landmark of India. It attracts visitors from all over the world who come to pay their respects to the Buddha and experience the peacefulness and serenity of the temple complex.

In conclusion, the Mahabodhi Temple is an important site of Buddhist pilgrimage, as well as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a symbol of India’s rich cultural heritage. It stands as a testament to the enduring legacy of the Buddha and his teachings and continues to inspire visitors with its beauty and tranquility. This is must visit place in Bodhgaya.

Nalanda University

Nalanda University is a historical site located in Bihar. It was one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in the world, attracting scholars and students from across Asia and beyond. The university was founded in the 5th century CE, during the Gupta period, and it continued to flourish for several centuries, becoming a center of learning and scholarship in the fields of mathematics, astronomy, medicine, philosophy, and religion.

The university was established by Gupta Emperor Kumaragupta I, who built a large monastery and several temples in the area. Over time, the university grew in size and scope, attracting scholars from all over the world. Students and teachers came from countries such as China, Tibet, Korea, Indonesia, Persia, and Turkey, among others. The university had a large library with a vast collection of texts on a variety of subjects, making it one of the most important centers of learning in the ancient world.

Nalanda University was known for its rigorous academic standards and its emphasis on intellectual debate and discussion. Students and teachers engaged in lively debates on a variety of topics, and the university became famous for its dialectical method of inquiry. This method involved the rigorous examination of opposing arguments in order to arrive at a deeper understanding of the truth.

The university was also known for its rich cultural and religious heritage. It was home to several temples and monasteries, including the Mahavihara temple, which was dedicated to Lord Buddha. The temple was one of the largest and most impressive structures in the university, and it attracted thousands of pilgrims and devotees every year.

Despite its prominence and prestige, Nalanda University declined in the 12th century CE, following a series of invasions by Muslim armies. The university was sacked and destroyed, and many of its scholars and students were killed or forced to flee. Today, only ruins of the university remain, but they serve as a testament to the intellectual and cultural legacy of this great center of learning. This is one of the ancient monuments of Bihar.

Vikramshila University

historical places in Bihar

Vikramshila University was a prestigious center of learning during the Pala dynasty, which ruled over the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent from the 8th to the 12th century. It was founded by King Dharmapala in the late 8th century, and it continued to flourish for almost four centuries until it was destroyed by the Turkish army in the late 12th century.

The university was located in the town of Vikramshila, which is now in the Bhagalpur district of the Indian state of Bihar. It was situated on the banks of the Ganges river and was well connected to other parts of the subcontinent through a network of roads and waterways. The university was home to over 100 teachers and thousands of students from all over India and neighboring countries such as Tibet, Nepal, and Sri Lanka.

Vikramshila University was renowned for its expertise in various fields, including Buddhist philosophy, logic, grammar, and medicine. The university also played a significant role in the spread of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent and beyond. Many Buddhist texts were produced at the university, including the famous Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, which is also known as the Diamond Sutra.

The university was also known for its magnificent architecture and the artistic brilliance of its sculptures and murals. The main complex of the university covered an area of about 100 acres and consisted of several buildings, including a central shrine, lecture halls, libraries, and dormitories. The central shrine was adorned with elaborate carvings and paintings, and it housed several precious relics, including a statue of the Buddha.

The decline of Vikramshila University began in the late 11th century when the Pala dynasty began to weaken due to internal conflicts and external invasions. The decline was further accelerated by the Turkish invasions in the late 12th century, which led to the destruction of the university and the town of Vikramshila. The ruins of the university were rediscovered by British archaeologists in the 19th century, and today they are a popular tourist destination and an important archaeological site in Bihar.

In conclusion, Vikramshila University was a major center of learning and culture during the Pala dynasty, and it made significant contributions to the fields of Buddhist philosophy, literature, and art. Its legacy continues to inspire scholars and students of Buddhism and Indian history, and it serves as a reminder of the rich cultural heritage of Bihar and the Indian subcontinent.


Rajgir, located in the Nalanda district, is a town with a rich history. It was the capital of the Magadha Empire during the reign of Ajatshatru in the 5th century BC. The town is home to several historical sites, including the Ajatshatru Fort and the ancient Vishwa Shanti Stupa. This is one of the best places to visit in Bihar.


Pawapuri, located in the Nalanda district, is a holy site for Jains. It is believed to be the place where Lord Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, attained nirvana. The site is home to several Jain temples and attracts a large number of devotees every year.


Vaishali, located in the Muzaffarpur district, was one of the most important cities in ancient India. It was the birthplace of Lord Mahavira and is mentioned in several ancient texts. The city is home to several historical sites, including the Ashokan Pillar and the Ananda Stupa.

Kesaria Stupa

Kesaria Stupa, located in the East Champaran district, is one of the tallest Buddhist stupas in the world. Built-in the 3rd century BC, it is believed to have been commissioned by Emperor Ashoka. The stupa is a major tourist attraction and offers a glimpse into Bihar’s rich history.

Sher Shah Suri Masjid

The Sher Shah Suri Masjid, located in the town of Sasaram, is a mosque built by Sher Shah Suri, a prominent ruler of the 16th century. The mosque has a unique blend of Mughal and Indian architectural styles and is a prominent landmark in Sasaram.

Patna Sahib Gurudwara

Patna Sahib Gurudwara is one of the most significant Sikh pilgrimage sites located in the capital city of Bihar, Patna. The Gurudwara is considered one of the holiest places of worship for Sikhs worldwide and is closely associated with the tenth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh Ji. The gurudwara is also known as Takht Sri Patna Sahib, which means ‘The Throne of the Lord in Patna.’

The history of the gurudwara dates back to the early 1600s when Guru Gobind Singh Ji was born at the place where the gurudwara stands today. The place where the guru was born is called the Harmandir Sahib and is one of the significant attractions of the Gurudwara. Later, the gurudwara was constructed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh in the 19th century.

Visitors from all over the world come to Patna Sahib Gurudwara to pay their respects and seek blessings from Guru Gobind Singh Ji. The gurudwara has a peaceful and serene atmosphere that makes it an ideal place for spiritual seekers. The gurudwara also serves langar or free food to all its visitors, regardless of their caste, creed, or religion, making it a unique feature of Sikhism.

Here is what you can expect when you visit the Patna Sahib Gurudwara:

History and Significance: As mentioned earlier, Patna Sahib Gurudwara is closely associated with Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the tenth Guru of Sikhs. The guru was born at this place in 1666, and the house where he was born has been converted into a gurudwara. The Gurudwara was later constructed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who is also known as the Lion of Punjab.

The gurudwara has immense historical and religious significance for Sikhs as it is one of the five Takhts or thrones of the authority of Sikhism. It is believed that Guru Gobind Singh Ji stayed in Patna for several years, and the gurudwara was the center of his activities. The gurudwara has several artifacts and relics associated with the guru, including his weapons, manuscripts, and clothing.

Architecture: Patna Sahib Gurudwara has a unique architectural style that reflects Sikh culture and tradition. The gurudwara has a white marble facade with a gold-plated dome that glitters in the sunlight. The main prayer hall of the Gurudwara is decorated with intricate frescoes and paintings depicting the life and teachings of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. The gurudwara also has a langar hall that can accommodate thousands of people at a time.

Festivals and Celebrations: Patna Sahib Gurudwara is a place of celebration and festivity, and several religious festivals are celebrated here throughout the year. The most significant festival celebrated here is the birthday of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, which falls in January. The festival is celebrated with great fervor, and thousands of devotees come to the gurudwara to pay their respects. Other festivals celebrated here include Diwali, Holi, and Baisakhi.

Patna Sahib Gurudwara is a place of immense historical and religious significance for Sikhs worldwide. It is a place of spiritual solace and peace, where one can seek blessings and connect with the divine. The gurudwara is a testament to the rich cultural heritage of Bihar and India and is a must-visit destination for anyone interested in religious travel. This is one of the oldest historical places of Bihar.


Golghar is a granary in the city of Patna, Bihar. It was built in 1786 by the British during their rule in India and is considered one of the most prominent historical landmarks in Bihar.

The Golghar is a dome-shaped building with a height of 29 meters and a width of 125 meters. It was built to store grain during times of famine, and it is said that the idea for its construction came after a severe famine in 1770 that killed thousands of people. The granary was designed to hold up to 140,000 tons of grain, and its unique shape was intended to prevent the stored grain from being damaged during storage.

The Golghar has a spiral staircase that leads to the top of the building, offering a panoramic view of the city. Visitors can climb up to the top of the building to get a breathtaking view of the city and the surrounding landscape.

In addition to its historical significance, the Golghar is also a popular spot for locals and tourists alike to gather and enjoy scenic views. Many people come to the site to take pictures, have picnics, and enjoy the beauty of the building and its surroundings.

Overall, the Golghar is an important part of the history and culture of Patna, and it continues to be a popular attraction for visitors to the city.

So, these are some of the historical monuments of Bihar, that tell the rich history of Bihar. If you are coming to Bihar, you can visit these monuments in Bihar. Now, write your thoughts on Bihar in the comment below. Bihar has several other things to explore.

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